Introduction to classical Ottoman political thought. Increasing consciousness of political and social crisis, exemplified in the writings of Kınalızade and Gelibolulu Mustafa Âli. Attempts to return to the past during the 17th century, as seen in the Kadızadeli movements and the reports of Koçibey. Early tendencies of partial Westernization in the 18th century, as reflected in the Tulip Era or the thinking of the likes of İbrahim Müteferrika and Yirmisekiz Çelebi Mehmet Efendi. The Nizâm-ı Cedid and the beginnings of institutional modernization (1792- 1807). Reactions against reform : Halet Efendi. The centralizing policies and reforms of Mahmud II (1808-1839), and local resistance.